In the wake of the Emancipation Proclamation victory came a great momentum that led to the Union's war victory, 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments and Reconstruction.
Today in labor history, on May 16, 1943, the Warsaw Ghetto uprising comes to an end as Nazi soldiers gain control of Warsaw, Poland's Jewish ghetto, blowing up the last remaining synagogue and beginning the mass deportation of the ghetto's remaining dwellers to the Treblinka extermination camp.
On May 7, 1975, President Gerald R. Ford formally declared an end to the "Vietnam era."
Conflict carried on until the war ended in August 1842, when the Indians were force-marched to Oklahoma.
Muñoz decided - like thousands of other young people n the US - that if drafted, he would refuse to go fight in Vietnam. He was UCLA's first Chicano Student Body President, and started organizing in the Chicano community.
The nation's prison population exploded from 500,000 to 2.2 million between 1980 and 2011, in the decades since the for-profit business of incarceration was born.
On Sept. 4, 1918, U.S. troops landed at Archangel, in northern Russia, seeking to overthrow the new workers' government that had ousted the czar a year earlier.
On August 16, 1955, internationally known actor, singer and activist Paul Robeson lost his court appeal to force the U.S. State Department to grant him a passport.
On August 7, 1919, the Republic of the Councils of Hungary in Budapest was crushed by foreign reactionaries.